The theory that I proposed many years ago on this site is that individualism arose with the Indo-Europeans, and particularly the western R1b branch associated with Italic, Celtic and Germanic people. Bronze Age Indo-Europeans were not cereal farmers, nor hunter-gatherers, but essentially horse-riding pastoralists, specialising in cattle breeding. Their society was also the first in Europe to be very strongly patriarchal, especially as opposed to the very matriarchal cultures of the Neolithic period. They invaded Europe, Central Asia and South Asia and ruled as a conquering class, establishing the first true hierarchical societies in prehistory, over a millennium before the rise of dynasties in Babylon and Egypt.In this Bronze Age pastoralist society, land and personal possessions bronze and gold artefacts were highly valued, and social classes well defined by wealth and property. It is in this society, I believe, that lie the true roots of individualism.Temperament has been described as the hereditary/genetic part of one’s personality. It is well known that different breeds of dogs have clear-cut temperaments, yet each individual dog can have their own personality. The same is true for humans. From my observations, individualism partly cultural and partly hereditary. Within a same country and culture, strongly individualistic temperaments seem to run in some families. Education can soften up strong individualistic tendencies, but probably not eradicate it. It works the other way too.Consequently, it wouldn’t be surprising that genes for individualism were diffused by the Indo-Europeans and carriers of haplogroups R1. Naturally these genes are almost certainly not located on the Y chromosome itself, since women can be just as individualistic as men.