West Finnish 1
Erzya + Moksha closely related to ethnic Russian clusters that stretch from Northwest Russia to near the Volga, and also to the Estonian cluster.
South/Central Finnish the largest Finnish cluster, (probably) the greater part of the Finnish population in regions of highest population density within the country
Fenno-Scandian Swedes with probable recent Finnish ancestry and Finns with probable recent Swedish influence
Northwest Russian/Southeast Finnish Northwest Russians with, say, significant Ingrian ancestry, and Finns with recent Russian ancestry.
West Finnish 2 most of these Finns likely come from Western Finland, places like Southern Ostrobothnia, possibly also have some Swedish influence
West German individuals from Western and Northwestern Germany, also Dutch, Austrian and people of mixed origin, like a Dane with French and German ancestry, and Americans with British, German, Scandinavian and/or Polish ancestry. In other words, this is where Northwestern Europe meets Central Europe.
Vologda Russian: appears to be a local cluster. Judging from phylogeny, a mix of North Slavic, Baltic and Finnic influences
East Finnish Finns with substantial ancestry from Eastern Finland; the cluster with the highest chunk count in this analysis
Estonian a mixed cluster including individuals from Estonia, Russians with substantial ancestry from near Estonia; closely related to the Erzya + Moksha, Northwest Russian and Vologda (but) clearly more western, which suggests Germanic influence
Cornish very local cluster, which shows the highest chunk count among the Western European samples; results suggest a lack of outbreeding in recent times
French/Belgian the bulk of the French samples, French Canadian, and Belgian; but the most northerly French are in Northwest European cluster
Lithuanian more or less pure Lithuanians
Northwest Russian appears to be Russians who have more Finnic or Eastern Baltic ancestry than in the East Slavic cluster i.e. more northerly, less westerly, closer to Finnic-speaking Erzya, Moksha and Estonians
Irish + West British most Irish as well as British from Western Scotland and Wales; tempting to correlate this cluster with Celtic ancestry
South/West Scandinavian basically a Norwegian and Southern Swedish cluster, also Swedes from other parts who likely have German, Walloon or French influence
East German includes significant Germanic ancestry, also clear Western Slavic input; mixed Polish, German and Swedish
East Scandinavian or Swedish cluster; almost entirely Swedes, usually from Eastern or Southeastern Sweden and occasionally recent Finnish influence.
Polish/West Ukrainian vast majority of Poles, about half of Ukrainians, most from the Lviv district in the west, some recent Polish or German ancestry
East Slavic all Belorussians and Russians from near Belorussia and Ukraine and almost half of Ukrainians who show easterly genetic characteristics, also mixed Polish and Lithuanian ancestry; differentiating this cluster from the Polish/West Ukrainian group is a higher level of Baltic admixture in the former
East Central European based on most Hungarians but also Western and Southern Slavs, often with significant German ancestry; very high affinity with both the East German and Polish/West Ukrainian clusters
Northwest European: I had reasonable hopes of breaking up this large cluster into a couple of units at least. However, that did not happen, and I don’t think it will unless I obtain more samples from the relevant areas of Europe, like Holland and specific parts of the UK.
I think the main reason this cluster failed to budge was because of its cosmopolitan nature. In other words, the samples here include some of the most outbred in the analysis, and this, coupled with the fact that they carry very similar ancestral components, means that fine STRUCTURE doesn’t have anything to latch onto to create divisions.